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  • Bauglir
  • Fiamma di Udun
  • il Grande Nemico
  • Il Nemico
  • l'Oscuro Signore
  • Morgoth («enemigo oscuro»)
  • Oscuro Nemico del Mondo
  • Signore del Fuoco
  • y muchos otros

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Morgoth

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  Summary  

Morgoth Bauglir is a fictional character from J. R. R. Tolkien’s Middle-earth legendarium. He is the main antagonist of The Silmarillion, figures in The Children of Húrin, and is mentioned briefly in The Lord of the Rings.

Melkor was the most powerful of the Ainur, but turned to darkness and became Morgoth, the definitive antagonist of Arda from whom all evil in the world of Middle-earth ultimately stems. Sauron, one of the Maiar of Aulë, betrayed his kind and became Morgoth's principal lieutenant.

Morgoth was the principal agent of evil in The Silmarillion, and his influence lingered in the world even after he was cast from the world into the outer void. Morgoth's example provided later ages a cautionary tale against pride, wrath, envy, lust for power, and greed — and the destruction these visit upon oneself and others.

  Biography  

 Ainulindalë

Before the creation of Arda , Melkor was the most powerful and beautiful of the Ainur. Because of his unique station, he sought to create wills in the manner of his own Creator, so he alone would venture sometimes into the Void in search of the Flame Imperishable, the Secret Fire, which would grant him this ability. But he never found it for it is with Eru only. Instead, in what he hoped would be an expression of his own originality and creativity, he contended with Eru in the Music of the Ainur, introducing what he perceived to be themes of his own.

Unlike his fellow Ainu Aulë, Melkor was too proud to admit that his creations were simply discoveries wholly made possible by, and therefore “belonging” to, Eru. Instead, Melkor aspired to the level of Eru, the true Creator of all possibilities.

During the Great Music of the Ainur, Melkor attempted to alter the Music and introduced what he believed to be elements purely of his own design. As part of these efforts, he drew many weaker-willed Ainur to him, creating a counter to Eru’s main theme. Ironically, these attempts did not truly subvert the Music, but only elaborated Eru’s original intentions: the Music of Eru took on depth and beauty precisely because of the strife and sadness Melkor’s disharmonies introduced.

Since the Great Music of the Ainur stood as template for all of history and all of material creation in the Middle-earth cycle , there was an aspect of everything in Middle-earth that came of Melkor’s malign influence; everything had been "corrupted". Tolkien elaborates on this in Morgoth's Ring, drawing an analogy between the One Ring, into which Sauron committed much of his power, and all of Arda – "Morgoth's Ring" – which contains and is corrupted by the residue of Melkor's power until the Remaking of the World.

 Quenta Silmarillion
After the Creation, many Ainur entered into Eä. The most powerful of them were called the Valar, or Powers of the World; the lesser, who acted as their followers and assistants, were the Maiar. They immediately set about the ordering of the universe and Arda within it, according to the themes of Eru as best they understood them. Melkor and his followers entered Eä as well, and they set about ruining and undoing whatever the others did.

Each of the Valar was attracted to a particular aspect of the world that became the focus of his or her powers. Melkor was drawn to terrible extremes and violence — bitter cold, scorching heat, earthquakes, rendings, breakings, utter darkness, burning light, etc. His power was so great that at first the Valar were unable to restrain him; he single-handedly contended with the collective might of all of the Valar. Arda never seemed to achieve a stable form until the Vala Tulkas entered Eä and tipped the balance.

Driven out by Tulkas, Melkor brooded in the darkness at the outer reaches of Arda until an opportune moment arrived when Tulkas was distracted. Melkor re-entered Arda and attacked and destroyed the Two Lamps, which at the time were the only sources of light. Arda was plunged into darkness, and the island of Almaren, the first home of the Valar on Earth, was destroyed in the violence of the lamps' fall.

After the fall of the Lamps, the Valar withdrew into the land of Aman in the far West. The country where they settled was called Valinor, which they heavily fortified. Melkor held dominion over Middle-earth from his fortress of Utumno in the North.

Melkor’s first reign ended after the Elves, the eldest of the Children of Ilúvatar, awoke at the shores of Cuiviénen, and the Valar resolved to rescue them from his malice. The Valar waged devastating war on Melkor, and destroyed Utumno. Melkor was bound with a specially forged chain, Angainor, and brought to Valinor, where he was imprisoned in the Halls of Mandos for three ages.

In the account published in The Silmarillion, Melkor had captured a number of Elves before the Valar attacked him, and he tortured and corrupted them, breeding the first Orcs. Other versions of the story describe Orcs as corruptions of Men, or alternatively as soulless beings animated solely by the will of their evil lord. This last version illustrates the idea of Morgoth dispersing himself into the world he marred.

Upon his release, Melkor was paroled to Valinor, though a few of the Valar distrusted him. He made a pretence of humility and virtue, but secretly plotted harm toward the Elves, whose awakening he blamed for his defeat. The Noldor, most skilled of the three kindreds of Elves that had come to Valinor, were most vulnerable to his plots, since he had much knowledge they eagerly sought, and while instructing them he also awoke unrest and discontent among them. When the Valar became aware of this they sent Tulkas to arrest him, but Melkor had already fled. With the aid of Ungoliant, a dark spirit in the form of a monstrous spider, he destroyed the Two Trees of Valinor, slew the King of the Noldor, Finwë, and stole the three Silmarils, jewels made by Finwë’s son Fëanor, which were filled with the light of the Trees. Fëanor thereupon named him Morgoth, "Black Foe of the World", and the Eldar knew him by this name alone afterwards.

Morgoth resumed his rule in the North of Middle-earth, this time in Angband, a lesser fortress than Utumno, but not so completely destroyed. He rebuilt it, and raised above it the volcanic triple peak of Thangorodrim. The Silmarils he set into a crown of iron, which he wore at all times. Fëanor and most of the Noldor pursued him, along the way slaying their kin the Teleri and incurring the Doom of Mandos. On arriving in Beleriand, the region of Middle-earth nearest Angband, the Noldor established kingdoms and made war on Morgoth. Soon afterwards, the Sun and the Moon arose for the first time, and Men awoke if they had not done so already. The major battles of the ensuing war included the Dagor-nuin-Giliath , Dagor Aglareb , Dagor Bragollach at which the long-standing Siege of Angband was broken, and the battle of Nírnaeth Arnoediad when the armies of the Noldor and the Men allied with them were routed and the men of the East joined Morgoth. Over the next several decades, Morgoth destroyed the remaining Elven kingdoms, reducing their domain to an island in the Bay of Balar to which many refugees fled, and a small settlement at the Mouths of Sirion under the protection of Ulmo.

Before the Nírnaeth Arnoediad, the Man Beren and Elf Lúthien, the daughter of Thingol, entered Angband and recovered a Silmaril from Morgoth’s crown. It was inherited by their granddaughter Elwing, who joined those dwelling at the Mouths of Sirion. Her husband Eärendil, wearing the Silmaril on his brow, sailed across the sea to Valinor, where he pleaded with the Valar to liberate Middle-earth from Morgoth.

During the ensuing War of Wrath, Beleriand and much of the north of Middle-earth was destroyed and reshaped. In the end, Morgoth was utterly defeated, and his armies were almost entirely slaughtered. The dragons were almost all destroyed, and Thangorodrim was shattered when Eärendil slew the greatest of dragons, Ancalagon the Black, who crashed upon it as he fell. The few remaining dragons were scattered, and the handful of surviving Balrogs hid themselves deep within the earth. Morgoth fled into the deepest pit and begged for pardon, but his feet were cut from under him, his crown was made into a collar, and he was chained once again with Angainor. The Valar exiled him permanently from the world, thrusting him through the Door of Night into the void, excluded from Arda until the prophesied Dagor Dagorath, when he would meet his final destruction. His evil remained, however, as "Arda Marred," and his will influenced all living creatures.

 Children of Húrin

This book is a more complete version of a story summarized in Quenta Silmarillion. Húrin and his younger brother Huor were leaders of the House of Hador, one of the three kindred of elf-friends. At Nírnaeth Arnoediad they covered the escape of Turgon to Gondolin by sacrificing their army and themselves. Huor was slain, but Húrin was brought before Morgoth alive. As revenge for his aid to Turgon and his defiance, Morgoth cursed Húrin and his children, binding Húrin to a seat upon Thangorodrim and forcing him to witness all that happened to his children in the succeeding years. There is little additional information about Morgoth in this book, except in the encounter with Húrin, which is set out in more detail than in The Silmarillion and in a more connected narrative than in Unfinished Tales. It gives the first allusion to the corruption of Men by Morgoth soon after their awakening, and the assertion by Morgoth of his power over the entire Earth through "the shadow of my purpose".

 The Cult of Melkor

After Morgoth's defeat, his lieutenant Sauron gradually rallied his other dark servants, and during the Second Age built a new power base for himself in the land of Mordor. Mordor was built in imitation of Angband, though it was not nearly as strong. Sauron lacked the raw power and malice of his master, but he was far more cunning, and seduced many to his allegiance with lies and false promises. With the remaining Elves too weak to counter him after the destruction of Beleriand, Sauron spread his control across large portions of Middle-earth during the Second Age, which became known as the Dark Years. However, Sauron always remained faithful in his allegiance to Melkor; as Sauron expanded his empire into new lands, with it he would also spread a cult devoted to Melkor-worship, promising that one day he would return from the Void. Temples dedicated to Melkor were built by Sauron's servants throughout Rhûn and Haradwaith, where human sacrifice was practiced. Eventually, Sauron even managed to seduce the King of the Númenóreans to his allegiance, and the Cult of Melkor spread throughout the island until only a few of the Faithful remained, led by Elendil. Númenor was then destroyed, but even by the end of the Third Age, the Cult of Melkor was effectively the "state religion" of Mordor.

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Whole or part of the information contained in this card come from the Wikipedia article "Morgoth", licensed under CC-BY-SA full list of contributors here.